Guidelines for the detection and treatment of osteoporosis

Tomaž Kocjan, Janez Preželj, Marija Pfeifer, Mojca Jensterle Sever, Miro Čokolič, Andrej Zavratnik

Abstract


Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of disability and death. If we want to effectively prevent them, we should treat individuals at highrisk of fracture. Primarily, we treat patients afterosteoporotic vertebral or hip fracture, where it is required only to exclude secondary causes of osteoporosis prior to initiating treatment. For other women after menopause and men over fifty years, the risk of fracture could be assessed using clinical factors, which are entered into the computer-driven FRAX algorithm. The measurement of bone mineral density could also be used, but we have to take into account the age and sex of subjects when interpreting the result. Treatment of osteoporosis requires a healthy lifestyle without smoking and excessive alcohol intake. The diet should be rich in calcium and protein. Regular physical exercise has positive effects on the bone as well as on the muscles and fall prevention. The addition of vitamin D is always recommended. Drugs have proven efficacy against osteoporotic fractures. We can choose between several inhibitors of bone resorption, such as estrogens, bisphosphonates, raloxifene and denosumab. Teriparatide is an anabolic drug that promotes bone formation, while strontium ranelate has a beneficial effect on both processes of bone turnover.

Keywords


bisphosphonates; calcium; osteoporotic fractures; vitamin D

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Print ISSN: 1318-0347, electronic ISSN: 1581-0224 -  Zdravniški vestnik (ZV) regularly indexes and/or abstracts CAB Abstracts, Scopus, Embase, DOAJDLib.si, Digitalna knjžnica Slovenije, COBISS.

Supplement: print ISSN: 2464-0433 , electronic ISSN: 2464-0441 

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