Cardiac output measurement

  • Andreja Möller Petrun Oddelek za anesteziologijo, perioperativno intenzivno terapijo in terapijo bolečin UKC Maribor Ljubljanska 5 2000 Maribor
  • Mirt Kamenik UKC Maribor Ljubljanska 5 2000 Maribor
Keywords: cardiac output, Fick principle, thermodilution, pulse wave analysis, oesophageal Doppler


In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method), pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.


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How to Cite
Möller Petrun A, Kamenik M. Cardiac output measurement. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 1 [cited 3Apr.2020];83(1). Available from: