• Barbara Cvenkel Očesna klinika Klinični center Zaloška 29 1525 Ljubljana
  • Vinko V. Dolenc Klinični oddelek za nevrokirurgijo Klinični center Zaloška 7 1525 Ljubljana
  • Zoran Miloševič Klinični inštitut za radiologijo Klinični center Zaloška 7 1525 Ljubljana
Keywords: carotid-cavernous fistula, dural arteriovenous malformations, therapy


Background. Dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas (CCF) are communications fed by meningeal branches of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ACI) or/and external carotid artery (ACE). In contrast to typical CCF, the arteriovenous shunting of blood is usually low flow and low pressure. Spontaneous dural CCF are more common in postmenopausal women. Aetiology is unknown, but congenital malformation or rupture of thin-walled dural arteries within venous sinuses is believed to be the cause.

Case reports. 3 cases lacking the typical clinical signs of CCF who had been treated as chronic conjunctivitis, myositis of the extraocular muscle and orbital pseudotumour are presented. Clinical presentation depends on the direction and magnitude of fistular flow and on the anatomy of the collateral branches. If increased blood flow is directed anteriorly in ophthalmic veins the signs of orbito-ocular congestion are present (»redeyed shunt syndrome«). Drainage primarly in the inferior petrosal sinus may cause painful oculomotor and abducens palsies without signs of ocular congestion (»white-eyed shunt syndrome«). Also different therapeutic approaches as well as possible complications are described.

Conclusions. For definite diagnosis angiography is obligatory and is also therapeutic as one third to one half of dural CCF close spontaneously. Because of potential severe eye and systemic complications, surgical intervention is indicated only in cases with uncontrolled secondary glaucoma and hypoxic retinopathy.


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How to Cite
Cvenkel B, V. Dolenc V, Miloševič Z. DURAL CAROTID-CAVERNOUS FISTULAS. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 1 [cited 3Apr.2020];71. Available from: https://vestnik.szd.si/index.php/ZdravVest/article/view/1714
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