• Gal Granda Nevrološka klinika Klinični center Zaloška 7 1525 Ljubljana
  • Janez Mlakar Psihiatrična klinika Studenec 48 1260 Ljubljana Polje
  • David B. VOdušek Nevrološka klinika Klinični center Zaloška 7 1525 Ljubljana
Keywords: dementia, screening test, KPSS, MMSE, test standardization


Background. The incidence of dementia is growing due to the aging of the population. Active search for the population at risk is necessary. Short cognitive screening tests are one of the most suitable ways of doing that. The most often used test of this kind is Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Its distinctive features are simplicity and shortness. Kratek preizkus spoznavnih sposobnosti (KPSS) – Slovenian version of MMSE has been used in Slovenia since 1984, although there were no normative values for Slovenian population, which restricted its applicability and use in clinical practice. The aim of the present paper was to obtain the normative values for KPSS for different age and educational groups in population of adults older than 55 years. Our hypothesis was that test results would be significantly dependent on age and education which will justify the extensive nature of the study.

Methods. Some parts of the test were modified based on clinical experience in last years. The modified KPSS was used for testing at general practices in Ljubljana, Maribor and Novo mesto. The research comprised of KPSS testing in 154 volunteers, mean age 65.1 (ranged from 55 to 87 years). None of them had a diagnosis of dementia or other active psychiatric or neurologic ilness.

Results. We found that KPSS results are not influenced by gender. The volunteers were aranged in four age groups at five years intervals. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0002) for the mean results among different age groups were found. The volunteers were further divided in groups according to the level of education and the differences in mean results among the educational groups were statistically significant (p < 0.0000). Normative values for the age and education groups were obtained.

Conclusions. The main result of our study are KPSS normative values for different age and education groups of Slovenians. The mean results on KPSS are significantlly dependent on age and education. The differences in mean results among the groups clearly show the normative values should be considered when interpreting the results in clinical practice.


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How to Cite
Granda G, Mlakar J, VOdušek DB. THE SLOVENE VERSION OF MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION – STANDARDIZATION ON VOLUNTEERS FROM 55 TO 75 YEARS OLD (I). ZdravVestn [Internet]. 1 [cited 27Jan.2020];72(10). Available from:
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