• Irena Hočevar Boltežar Klinika za otorinolaringologijo in cervikofacialno kirurgijo Klinični center Zaloška 2 1525 Ljubljana
Keywords: voice disorders, functional dysphonia, etiology, diagnostic procedures, treatment


Background. Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) is the cause of hoarseness in almost one half of the patients with voice disorders. The otorhinolaryngologic examination discovers no evident organic lesions in the larynx at least in the beginning of the voice problems. The reason for the hoarse voice is a disordered and maladjusted activity of the muscles taking part in phonation and/or articulation. In some patients, the irregular function of the larynx results in mucosal lesions on vocal folds. The factors participating in the development of MTD, directly or indirectly influence the quality of laryngeal mucosa, the activity of the phonatory muscles and/or increase of the vocal load. In the diagnostics and treatment of the MTD a phoniatrician, a speech and language therapist and a psychologist closely cooperate with the patient who must take an active role. The treatment is a long-lasting one but resulted in a high percentage of clinical success.

Conclusions. Most likely, MTD is not a special disease but only a reflection of any disorder in the complicated system of regulation and realization of phonation. The prognosis of treatment is good when all unfavourable factors participating in development of MTD are eliminated and a proper professional voice- and psychotherapy started.


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How to Cite
Hočevar Boltežar I. MUSCLE TENSION DYSPHONIA. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 1 [cited 21Feb.2020];73(7-8). Available from: