• Renata Ocvirk Inštitut za mikrobiologijo in imunologijo Medicinska fakulteta Zaloška 4 1000 Ljubljana
  • Tadeja Matos Inštitut za mikrobiologijo in imunologijo Medicinska fakulteta Zaloška 4 1000 Ljubljana
  • Matjaž Sever Klinični oddelek za hematologijo Klinični center Zaloška 7 1525 Ljubljana
  • Samo Zver Klinični oddelek za hematologijo Klinični center Zaloška 7 1525 Ljubljana
Keywords: air quality, HEPA filters, invasive aspergillosis


Background. Invasive aspergillosis is the most f requent and the most greatly feared infectious complication in neutropenic hematological patients. In order to prevent exogeneous aspergillus infection in such patients, their environment should be as free as possible from aspergillus spores, i.e. considerably below 1,0 CFU/m3.

Methods. With the air sampling at different points of Haematology Department in the Ljubljana Clinical Center we wished to compare concentration of spores of Aspergillus spp. and to define an efficacy of hygienic-sanitary measures at those points.

Results. Air sampling revealed that there is no essential difference in concentration of spores of Aspergillus spp. between external and internal air and also among different spaces at Haematology Department. The concentration of spores of Aspergillus spp. varied between 0.0 and 19.2 CFU/m3.

Conclusions. Concentrations of spores of Aspergillus spp. in different units of Haematology Department are extremely high and unacceptable. This is probably the consequence of the different external and internal environment factors. However, we may conclude that the most influential factor is unfiltered air.


Download data is not yet available.


Ruechel R, Reichard U. Pathogenesis and clinical presentation of aspergillosis. In: Brakhage AA, Jahn B, Schmidt A eds. Aspergillus fumigatus biology, clinical aspects and molecular approaches to pathogenicity. 1st ed. Vol 2.Basel: Karger, 1999: 21–43.

Leenders ACAP, Belkum A, Behrendt M, Luijendijk A, Verbrugh HA. Density and molecular epidemiology of Aspergillus in air and relationship to outbreaks of Aspergillus infection. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 1752–57.

Chazalet V, Debeaupuis JP, Sarfati J et al. Molecular typing of environmental and patient isolates of Asperrgilus fumigatus from various hospital settings. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 1494–500.

Gabrino J, Rohner P, Kolarova L, Ondrusova A, Lew D. Successful treatment of pulmonary invasive Aspergilosis with voriconazole in patient who failed conventional therapy. Infection 2003; 31: 241–3.

Zver S. Invazivne glivične okužbe – naše izkušnje pri diagnostiki in zdravljenju. Med Razgl 2000; 39: Suppl 5: 213–20.

Stevens DA. Diagnosis of fungal infections: current status. J Antimicrob Chemother 2002; 49: Suppl1: 11–9.

Andriole VT. Aspergillus infection: problems in diagnosis and treatment. Infect Agents Dis 1996; 5: 47–54.

Becker MJ, Marie SD, Willemse D, Verbrugh HA, Woudenberg IB. Quatitative galactomanan detection is superior to PCR in diagnosis and monitoring invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis in an experimental rat model. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 1434–8.

Maertens J, Verhaegen J, Lagrou K, Van Eldere J, Boogaerts M. Screening for circulation galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patient and stem cell transplantation recipients: a prospective validation. Blood 2001; 97: Suppl 6: 1604–10.

Alexander BD. Diagnosis of fungal infection: new technologies for mycology laboratory. Transpl Infect Dis 2002; 3: 32–7.

Caillot D, Mannone L, Cuisenier B, Couaillier JF. Role of early diagnosis and aggressive surgery in the management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in neutropenic patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 2001; 7: Suppl 2: 54–61.

Maschmeyer G, Beinert T, Buchheidt D et al. Diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of pulmonary infiltrates in fibrile neutropenic patients – guidlines of the infectious diseases working party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO). Ann Hematol 2003; 82: Suppl 2: 118–26.

Matos T. Oportunistične glive. In: Gubina M, Ihan A eds. Medicinska bakteriologija z imunologijo in mikologijo. 1st ed. Ljubljana: Medicinski razgledi, 2002: 481–99.

Morris G, Kokki MH, Anderson K, Richardson MD. Sampling of Aspergillus spores in air. J Hosp Infect 2000; 44: 81–92.

Flannigan B, Miller JD. Health implications of fungi in indoor environments – an overview. In.: Samson RA, Flannigan B, Flannigan ME, Verhoeff AP, Adan OCG, Hoekstra ES eds. Health implications of fungi in indoor environments. 1st ed. Vol. 2. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1994: 3–28.

Richardson M, Ylikoski J, Meri T. The effective prevention of systemic fungal infection: precluding the risk of environmental exposure. URL:

Thio CL, Smith D, Merz WG et al. Refinments of environmental assesment during an outbreak investigation of invasive aspergillosis in a leukemia and bone morrow transplantant unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000; 21: 18–23.

Engelhart S, Hanfland J, Glasmacher A, Krizek L, Schmidt-Wolf IGH, Exner M. Impact of portable air filtration units on exposure of hematology-oncology

patients to airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores under field conditions. J Hosp Infect 2003; 54: 300–4.

Hoffman PN, Bennet AM, Scott GM. Controling airborne infections. J Hosp Infect 1999; 43: 203–10.

Lutz BD, Jin J, Rinaldi MG, Wickes BL, Huycke MM. Outbreak of Invasive Aspergillus Infection in Surgical Patients, Asociated with a Contaminated Air-Handling System. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37: 786–93.

Bouza E, Pelaez T, Perz-Molina J et al. Demolition of hospital building by controlled explosion: the impact on filamentous fungal load in internal and external air. J Hosp Infect 2002; 52: 234–42.

How to Cite
Ocvirk R, Matos T, Sever M, Zver S. SAMPLING OF SPORES OF ASPERGILLUS SPP. IN AIR AT DEPARTMENT OF HEMATOLOGY IN LJUBLJANA. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 1 [cited 22Aug.2019];73. Available from:
Professional Article