History of infant milk formula in Slovenia

  • Maja Šikić Pogačar Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
  • Eva Turk DNV GL - Healthcare | Strategic Research and Innovation, Norway
  • Dušanka Mičetić Turk Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
Keywords: human milk, history, infant feeding methods, infant milk formula

Abstract

 

Abstract

 

Optimal nutrition is one of the most important aspects in the care of infants, especially for the preterm infants and neonates. Until the 1900s, an infant’s survival and health were closly related to the availability of breastmilk.  Human milk was and still is the best food for nearly all infants. Besides physical growth, human milk offers a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, maturation of immune system, and has positive effect on brain development. Even though breastfeeding is highly recommended, it may not always be possible, suitable or adequate. Through history, the evolution of infant feeding included wet nursing, bottle feeding, and formula use. Wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the breastmilk before bottles and infant milk formula were invented. However, society's negative view of wet nursing together with the invention and improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal’s milk, and advances in milk formula development, gradually led to replacing wet nursing with bottle feeding. Such evolution of infant feeding methods was similar throughout the world and Slovenia followed the trend. In this article, we review the history of different methods of infant feeding, other than breastfeeding, all of which presented an alternative to breastfeeding. 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Stevens EE, Patrick TE, Pickler R. A history of infant feeding. J Perinat Educ. 2009;18(2):32–9. https://doi.org/10.1624/105812409X426314 PMID:20190854

Gillam RA. Priestesses of Hathor: Their Function, Decline and Disappearance. J Am Res Cent Egypt. 1995;32:211–37. https://doi.org/10.2307/40000840.

Buxton R. Myths and Tragedies in their Ancient Greek Context. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2013. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557615.001.0001.

Krishna N. Sacred Animals of India. 1st ed. London: Penguin Books Limited; 2014.

Wickes IG. A history of infant feeding. I. Primitive peoples; ancient works; Renaissance writers. Arch Dis Child. 1953 Apr;28(138):151–8. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.28.138.151 PMID:13041294

Infant feeding in the Bible. Midwife Health Visit Community Nurse. 1987 Jul;23(7):309–13. PMID:3306296

Radbill SX. Infant feeding through the ages. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1981 Oct;20(10):613–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/000992288102001001 PMID:7023787

Osborn ML. The rent breasts: a brief history of wet-nursing. Midwife Health Visit Community Nurse. 1979 Aug;15(8):302–6. PMID:381849

Osborn ML. The rent breasts. Part II. Midwife Health Visit Community Nurse. 1979 Sep;15(9):347–8. PMID:381850

Wickes IG. A history of infant feeding. II. Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Arch Dis Child. 1953 Jun;28(139):232–40. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.28.139.232 PMID:13058447

Wickes IG. A history of infant feeding. III. Eighteenth and nineteenth century writers. Arch Dis Child. 1953 Aug;28(140):332–40. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.28.140.332 PMID:13081174

Koprivec D. Egiptovski otroci in njihove varuške aleksandrinke. Etnolog. 2008;18:167–86.

Aleksandrinke. History. Available from: http://www.aleksandrinke.si/aleksandrinke/zgodovina/

Dowling DA. Lessons from the past: a brief history of the influence of the social economic and scientific factors on infant feeding. Newborn Infant Nurs Rev. 2005;5(1):2–9. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.nainr.2005.02.003.

Schuman A. A concise history of infant formula (twists and turns included). Contemp Pediatr. 2003;2:91.

Fomon S. Infant feeding in the 20th century: formula and beikost. J Nutr. 2001 Feb;131(2):409S–20S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.2.409S PMID:11160571

UNICEF. Innocenti declaration on the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. Adopted at the WHO/UNICEF meeting on "Breastfeeding in the 1990s: A Global Initiative", held at the Spedale degli Innocenti. Florence, Italy, 1990.

Fewtrell M, Bronsky J, Campoy C, Domellöf M, Embleton N, Fidler Mis N, et al. Complementary Feeding: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Jan;64(1):119–32. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000001454 PMID:28027215

EBMA. European Milk Bank Association. Available from: https://europeanmilkbanking.com

Martin CR, Ling PR, Blackburn GL. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula. Nutrients. 2016 May;8(5):279. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050279 PMID:27187450

Koletzko B, Baker S, Cleghorn G, Neto UF, Gopalan S, Hernell O, et al. Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Nov;41(5):584–99. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mpg.0000187817.38836.42 PMID:16254515

Agostoni C, Axelsson I, Goulet O, Koletzko B, Michaelsen KF, Puntis J, et al.; ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. Soy protein infant formulae and follow-on formulae: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Apr;42(4):352–61. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mpg.0000189358.38427.cd PMID:16641572

Barbarić I. Which formula for a cow’s-milk-protein intolerant infant? Zdrav Vestn. 2013;82(1):I-152–5.

Owens CJ, Labuschagne IL, Lombard MJ. The basics of prescribing infant formulas. Afr Fam Pract. 2012;54(1):25–30.

Szajewska H, Skórka A, Pieścik-Lech M. Fermented infant formulas without live bacteria: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr. 2015 Nov;174(11):1413–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-015-2629-y PMID:26358067

Commission Directive. 2006/141/EC of 22 December 2006 on infant formulae and follow-on formulae and amending Directive 1999/21/EC Text with EEA relevance. Official Journal of the European Union. 2006. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32006L0141

Aggett PJ, Agostini C, Goulet O, Hernell O, Koletzko B, Lafeber HL, et al.; European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition. The nutritional and safety assessment of breast milk substitutes and other dietary products for infants: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001 Mar;32(3):256–8. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200103000-00004 PMID:11345171

Vandenplas Y, Ghanma A, Franckx J, Peeters S, Pletincx M, Hauser B. Probiotics and prebiotics in infant formula. Zdrav Vestn. 2013;82(1):I-70–6.

Ferruzzi MG, Neilson AP. Technological progress as a driver of innovation in infant foods. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2010;66:81–95. https://doi.org/10.1159/000318950 PMID:20664218

Lo CW, Kleinman RE. Infant formula, past and future: opportunities for improvement. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Apr;63(4):646S–50S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/63.4.646 PMID:8599333

Teider M. Jugodijetetika. U povodu 70. obljetnice postojanja PLIVE i 55 godina znanstveno-istraživačkog rada. Pliva; 1991.

Merit HP. Available from: http://www.merit-international.si/sl/programi/prehrana/aptamil/

Povijesnica Plive. Zagreb: Pliva; 1996.

Njega i prehrana dojenčeta. Pliva, Zagreb: 1970.

Expertise H. Naturalness and Trustworthiness for more than 60 years. Available: http://www.humana-baby.com/brand/

Mičetić-Turk D. Klinična raziskava izdelkov Pikomil 1 in Pikomil 2 v prehrani dojenčkov. Maribor: Splošna bolnišnica, Oddelek za otroške bolezni, 1994.

Aptamil. Zgodovina. Available from: http://www.aptaclub.si/strokovno-znanje/pages/zgodovina.aspx

HIPP – a family-owned business with a tradition of more than 100 years.

History N. Available from: https://www.nestle.com/aboutus/history

Sedmak Lojk V, Ülen B. Novalac. Uporaba mobilne aplikacije za približevanje in vključevanje ciljne skupine. 2013. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/marketingslo/vesna-sedmak-lojk-in-barbara-len-medis-uporaba-aplikacije-za-priblievanje-in-vkljuevanje-ciljne-skupine

Holle. Available from: https://www.holle.si/holle-kvaliteta/

Published
2018-10-28
How to Cite
1.
Šikić Pogačar M, Turk E, Mičetić Turk D. History of infant milk formula in Slovenia. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 28Oct.2018 [cited 17Jan.2019];87(9-10):461-72. Available from: https://vestnik.szd.si/index.php/ZdravVest/article/view/2668
Section
Professional Article