• Ivan Fistonić RIM Ob/Gyn Office Preradovićeva 10 10000 Zagreb Croatia
  • Petar Lozo Poliklinika Lozo Miroslava Krleže 5 23000 Zadar Croatia
  • Marina Fistonić University Department of Psychiatry KB Dubrava Av. G. Šuška 6 10000 Zagreb Croatia
Keywords: medical error, menopause, risk management


Background. In the past thirty years, there has been a significant rise of public and private health institutions’ interest in the prediction and management of medical risks. The need of risk management is a direct consequence of the growing number of legal actions against medical malpractice. The concept of risk management involves three basic processes: risk identification, risk analysis, and risk management. Risk includes an evaluation of vulnerability and management of events that could potentially endanger the operation of a health institution, comprising a balance between the consequential costs of medical malpractice and the costs of risk reduction (anticipation). Thus the potential financial consequences of risk exposure are crucial in the formation of diagnostic and treatment protocols, whereas improvement of the quality of medical care as well as patient protection are the primary aims of risk management.

Conclusions. Postmenopausal health care is not an exempt when considering possible erorrs in medication or medical process per se. On the orther hand menopausal medicine is not only hormonal replacement therapy but also bunch of complementary and alternative specialities involved in the healing process where error could be easily achieved.


Download data is not yet available.


Walshe KMJ. The development of clinical risk management. In:

Vincent CA, ed. Clinical risk management. 2nd ed. London: BMJ

Publications; 2001.

Dingwall R, Fenn P. Risk managment: financial implications. In:

Vincent CA, ed. Clinical risk management. London: BMJ Publications;

p. 73–87.

National Patient Safety Agency Report 2009. Tackling medication

incidents and increasing patient safety. Dosegljivo na: http://


Brennan TA, Leape LL, Laird NM, Hebert L, Localio AR, Lawthers

AG at al. Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized

patients. New Engl J Med 1991; 324: 370–6.

Thomas EJ, Studdert DM, Burstin HR, Orav EJ, Zeena T, Williams

EJ, et al. Incidence and types of adverse events and negligent

care in Utah and Colorado. Med Care 2000; 38: 261–71.

Wilson RM, Runciman WB, Gibberd RW, Harrison BT, Newby L,

Hamilton JD. The quality in Australian Health Care Study. Med J

Aust 1995; 163: 458–71.

Department of Health. An Organisation with a Memory. Report

of an Expert Group on Learning from Adverse Events in the

NHS. London: The Stationery Office; 2000.

Wilf-Miron R, Lewenhoff I, Benyamini Z, Aviram A. From aviation

to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk

management in ambulatory care. Qual Saf Health Care 2003;

: 35–9.

Tighe CM, Woloshynowych M, Brown R, Wears B, Vincent C.

Incident reporting in one UK accident and emergency department.

Accid Emerg Nurs 2006; 14: 27–37.

Vincent CA. How to investigate and analyze clinical incidents:

Clinical Risk Unit and Association of Litigation and Risk Management

Protocol. BMJ 2000; 320: 777–81.

Robbennolt JK. Apologies and medical error. Orthop Relat Res

; 467: 376–82.

Clinton HR, Obama B. Making patient safety the centerpiece of

medical liability reform. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2205–8.

Fenn P, Gray A, Rickman N. Liability, insurance and medical

practice. J Health Econ 2007; 26: 1057–70.

Francis R. Consent. In: Clements RV, ed. Risk Management and

Litigationin Obstetrics and Gynaecology. London: The Royal

Society of Medicine Press; 2001.

Stevenson DG, Studdert DM. The rise of nursing home litigation:

Findings from a national survey of attorneys. Health Aff

(Millwood) 2003; 22: 219–29.

Rowatt A, Scofield J, Forrester P. Case Rowatt v. Wyeth Pharmaceuticals

Inc., 04-01699, Second Judicial District Court, State of

Nevada, Washoe County (Reno), 2006.

Edozien LC. Risk management issues in postmenopausal health

care. Menopause Int 2007; 13: 144–7.

Clinkingbeard C, Minton BA, Davis J, McDermott K. Women’s

knowledge about menopause, hormone replacement therapy

(HRT), and interactions with healthcare providers: an exploratory

study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 1999; 8: 1097–

Palacios S. The awareness of the menopausal woman concerning

the menopausal transition. In: Lauritzen C, Studd J, eds. Current

Management of the Menopause. London: Taylor & Francis; 2005.

p. 43–9.

Panting G. Medicolegal pitfalls of prescribing hormone replacement

therapy. J Br Menopause Soc 2006; 12: 34–5.

Fistonic I. Personal communication. 2008–2009.

How to Cite
Fistonić I, Lozo P, Fistonić M. »CRIME AND PUNISHMENT« IN THE MENOPAUSAL HEALTH CARE. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 14Feb.2018 [cited 30Mar.2020];78. Available from: https://vestnik.szd.si/index.php/ZdravVest/article/view/2759
Quality and safety