Ischemic stroke in childhood and adolescence

Early detection and recommendations for acute treatment

  • Alja Kavčič Department of Child, Adolescent and Developmental Neurology, Division of Paediatrics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Zvonka Rener Primec Department of Child, Adolescent and Developmental Neurology, Division of Paediatrics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Mirjana Perković Benedik Klinični oddelek za otroško, mladostniško in razvojno nevrologijo, Pediatrična klinika, Univerzitetni klinični center Ljubljana
  • Nuška Pečarič Meglič Institute of Radiology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Damjan Osredkar Department of Child, Adolescent and Developmental Neurology, Division of Paediatrics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Keywords: stroke, children, etiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, urgent managment, investigations

Abstract

Stroke in childhood is a rare but important cause of neurological disability in children. Due to the development and availability of neuroradiological investigations childhood stroke can be recognized earlier. Aetiology and risk factors of stroke in childhood differ largely from stroke in adulthood, as do causes in the neonatal period from those in childhood. The most frequent risk factors for arterial ischaemic stroke in childhood and adolescence are arteriopathies, congenital heart diseases and thrombophilias. There can be more than one risk factor involved. Clinical presentation of stroke is diverse, and diagnosis is often delayed. Not only can stroke lead to a loss of certain brain functions, it may also have devastating consequences for a child’s development.
Due to the importance of early detection, this article focuses on major risk factors and different clinical presentations of ischaemic stroke in children. To minimize the damage and to provide better outcomes, we outline recent guidelines for acute management of paediatric stroke. Recommendations regarding stroke management in this article are intended for paediatric population from one month to including 18 years of age.

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Published
2019-04-18
How to Cite
1.
Kavčič A, Rener Primec Z, Perković Benedik M, Pečarič Meglič N, Osredkar D. Ischemic stroke in childhood and adolescence. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 18Apr.2019 [cited 18Jun.2019];88(3-4):184-96. Available from: https://vestnik.szd.si/index.php/ZdravVest/article/view/2802
Section
Professional Article