Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis

  • Jurij Janež Department of Abdominal Surgery, Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Žan Čebron Department of Abdominal Surgery, Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Keywords: peritonitis, peritoneal dialysis, treatment, prevention

Abstract

Peritoneal dialysis is used worldwide as a treatment for end-stage kidney failure. Globally, it accounts for about 11 % of all therapeutic dialysis interventions, with over 200.000 patients currently undergoing the procedure in more than 130 countries. In Slovenia, however, the percentage of patients treated by peritoneal dialysis has fallen due to the rise in renal transplantation services and the number of transplanted patients with functioning kidney graft. In 2013, patients receiving peritoneal dialysis in Slovenia accounted for only 2.5 % (52 patients) of the total number treated by renal replacement therapy (2077 patients).
A potential complication of peritoneal dialysis is peritonitis. Although in general, peritonitis-related mortality has declined significantly in the last decade (with less than 5 % of peritonitis episodes resulting in death) possibly due to improved preventive measures, peritonitis still remains a direct or major contributing cause of mortality in approximately 16 % of peritoneal dialysis patients.
In these patients, the time frame between the onset of peritonitis and the commencement of treatment critically determines the course and outcome of the disease. Peritonitis patients require urgent care, and therapeutic interventions may include conservative and/or surgical treatment protocols.
Meanwhile, it is important to emphasize that prevention of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis is as important as early diagnosis and timely treatment.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Jurij Janež, Department of Abdominal Surgery, Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

asist. dr. Jurij Janež, dr. med.

Klinični oddelek za abdominalno kirurgijo

Univerzitetni Klinični Center Ljublana

References

Omejc M. Kirurgija trebušne votline. In: Smrkolj V, editor. Kirurgija. Celje: Grafika Gracer. 2014. pp. 1000–2.

Townsend C, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox K. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: the Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2017.

Košnik M, Mrevlje F, Štajer D, Černelč P, Koželj M, Andoljšek D, et al. Interna medicina. Ljubljana: Littera picta: Slovensko medicinsko društvo; 2011. p. 1133–1137.

Li PK, Szeto CC, Piraino B, de Arteaga J, Fan S, Figueiredo AE, et al. ISPD Peritonitis Recommendations: 2016 Update on Prevention and Treatment. Perit Dial Int. 2016 Sep;36(5):481–508. https://doi.org/10.3747/pdi.2016.00078 PMID:27282851

Segal JH, Messana JM. Prevention of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis. Semin Dial. 2013 Jul-Aug;26(4):494–502. https://doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12114 PMID:23859192

Szeto CC. Peritonitis rates of the past thirty years: from improvement to stagnation. Perit Dial Int. 2014 Mar-Apr;34(2):151–3. https://doi.org/10.3747/pdi.2014.00007 PMID:24676740

Khilji MF. Primary Peritonitis-A Forgotten Entity. European J Pediatr Surg Rep. 2015 Jun;3(1):27–9. PMID:26171311

Holzheimer RG. Management of secondary peritonitis. In: Holzheimer RG, Mannick JA, editors. Surgical Treatment: Evidence-Based and Problem-Oriented. Munich: Zuckschwerdt; 2001.

Mishra SP, Tiwary SK, Mishra M, Gupta SK. An introduction of Tertiary Peritonitis. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2014 Apr;7(2):121–3. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974–2700.130883 PMID:24812458

Walker A, Bannister K, George C, Mudge D, Yehia M, Lonergan M, et al. KHA-CARI Guideline: peritonitis treatment and prophylaxis. Nephrology (Carlton). 2014 Feb;19(2):69–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/nep.12152 PMID:23944845

Burkart MD. Microbiology and therapy of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc [cited 2018 May 15]. Available from: http://www.uptodate.com

Burkart MD. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com (dostopno 15. maja 2018).

Montravers P, Blot S, Dimopoulos G, Eckmann C, Eggimann P, Guirao X, et al. Therapeutic management of peritonitis: a comprehensive guide for intensivists. Intensive Care Med. 2016 Aug;42(8):1234–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134–016–4307–6 PMID:26984317

Cho Y, Johnson DW. Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: towards improving evidence, practices, and outcomes. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Aug;64(2):278–89. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.02.025 PMID:24751170

Kendrick J, Teitelbaum I. Strategies for improving long-term survival in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Jun;5(6):1123–31. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.04300709 PMID:20430945

Kovač D. Kako povečati program peritonealne dialize v Sloveniji. In: 30-letnica kontinuirane peritonealne dialize v Sloveniji; 20. in 21. november 2014; Hotel Mons, Slovensko nefrološko društvo, Ljubljana, Slovenija. Ljubljana: UKC, KO za nefrologijo; 2014.

Buturović-Ponikvar J, Gubenšek J, Arnol M, Adamlje T, Ceglar Z, Damevska G, et al. Renal Replacement Therapy in Slovenia: Excerpts From 2013 Data. Ther Apher Dial. 2016 Jun;20(3):223–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/1744–9987.12427 PMID:27312905

Mehrotra R, Devuyst O, Davies SJ, Johnson DW. The Current State of Peritoneal Dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Nov;27(11):3238–52. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2016010112 PMID:27339663

Tomažič J. in Strle F. s sodelavci. Infekcijske bolezni. Ljubljana: Slovensko zdravniško društvo, Združenje za infektologijo; 2014/2015. p. 375

Mlinšek D, Savicki B. Postopki pri zdravljenju peritonitisa kot zaplet kontinuirane peritonealne dialize. Ljubljana. Obzor Zdr N. 1994;28:109–11.

Akoh JA. Peritoneal dialysis associated infections: an update on diagnosis and management. World J Nephrol. 2012 Aug;1(4):106–22. https://doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v1.i4.106 PMID:24175248

Okamoto T, Ikenoue T, Matsui K, Miyazaki M, Tsuzuku Y, Nishizawa Y, et al. Free air on CT and the risk of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a retrospective study. Ren Fail. 2014 Nov;36(10):1492–6. https://doi.org/10.3109/0886022X.2014.958953 PMID:25211321

Temiz G, Sahin G, Mukerrem G, Ozkurt S, Degirmenci NA, Yalcin AU. Ultrasonographic evaluation of peritoneal membrane thickness and comparison with the effectiveness and duration of CAPD. Int Urol Nephrol. 2013 Dec;45(6):1761–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255–013–0504–1 PMID:23884729

Barretti P, Doles JV, Pinotti DG, El Dib R. Efficacy of antibiotic therapy for peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: a proportional meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Aug;14(1):445. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471–2334–14–445 PMID:25135487

Chow KM, Szeto CC, Cheung KK, Leung CB, Wong SS, Law MC, et al. Predictive value of dialysate cell counts in peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Jul;1(4):768–73. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.01010306 PMID:17699285

Bender FH. Avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis patients. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2012 May;19(3):171–8. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ackd.2012.04.002 PMID:22578677

Janež J. Laparoskopska vstavitev katetra za peritonealno dializo. Med Razgl. 2017;56(4):517–24.

Pintar T, Trotovšek B, Beović B. Smernice za profilaktično uporabo antibiotikov v abdominalni kirurgiji za odrasle. Zdrav Vestn. 2014;83:651–60.

Gadallah MF, Ramdeen G, Mignone J, Patel D, Mitchell L, Tatro S. Role of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing postoperative peritonitis in newly placed peritoneal dialysis catheters. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000 Nov;36(5):1014–9. https://doi.org/10.1053/ajkd.2000.19104 PMID:11054359

Velloso MS, Otoni A, de Paula Sabino A, de Castro WV, Pinto SW, Marinho MA, et al. Peritoneal dialysis and inflammation. Clin Chim Acta. 2014 Mar;430:109–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2013.12.003 PMID:24333488

Published
2019-03-04
How to Cite
1.
Janež J, Čebron Žan. Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 4Mar.2019 [cited 26Jun.2019];88(1-2):23-9. Available from: https://vestnik.szd.si/index.php/ZdravVest/article/view/2844
Section
Professional Article