First aid and emergency treatment after hydrofluoric acid splash
AbstractIntroduction: Chemicals are used in all kinds of industry and one fifth of workers have dealt with dangerous chemicals. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is one of the most dangerous inorganic acids; it is used in the electronics, chemical, glass, steel, car and oil industry. HF has a double action, being both corrosive and toxic due to the synergistic action of H+ and F- ions. On contact with the skin and eyes, HF causes severe chemical burns, which allow diffusion of F- into the tissues, and systemic toxicity with cardiac rhythm disturbances due to hypocalcemia. Conclusions: Chemical burns due to HF splashes can be prevented by wearing personal protective gear and immediate decontamination since HF penetration through the epidermis and cornea begins within the first minute. First aid by washing with water followed by topical application of calcium gluconate has several limitations and is unpredictable, while ocular and cutaneous washing with hexafluorine is very effective and can completely prevent chemical burns and systemic toxicity after HF splash.
The Author transfers to the Publisher (Zdravniški vestnik/Slovenian Medical Journal) all economic copyrights following form Article 22 of the Slovene Copyright and Related Rights Act (ZASP), including the right of reproduction, the right of distribution, the rental right, the right of public performance, the right of public transmission, the right of public communication by means of phonograms and videograms, the right of public presentation, the right of broadcasting, the right of rebroadcasting, the right of secondary broadcasting, the right of communication to the public, the right of transformation, the right of audiovisual adaptation and all other rights of the author according to ZASP.
The aforementioned rights are transferred non-exclusively, for an unlimited number of editions, for the term of the statutory
The Author can make use of his work himself or transfer subjective rights to others only after 3 months from date of first publishing in the journal Zdravniški vestnik/Slovenian Medical Journal.
The Publisher (Zdravniški vestnik/Slovenian Medical Journal) has the right to transfer the rights, acquired parties without explicit consent of the Author.
The Author consents that the Article be published under the Creative Commons BY-NC 4.0 (attribution-non-commercial) or comparable licence.