HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN (HDFN) – CASE REPORT
Background. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) develops because of the passage of maternal erythrocyte alloantibodies through the placenta. These antibodies cause a reduction of the erythrocyte life span in the fetus and newborn. This severe form of the disease is most commonly caused by anti-D antibodies. Besides those, the hemolytic disease can also be caused by anti-K, anti-c, anti-E, anti-A, anti-B and some other antibodies.
Methods and material. A case of a pregnant woman who has been pregnant four times is presented. During the first pregnancy, she developed anti-D erythrocyte antibodies, and after the third pregnancy also additional anti-C antibodies. During the first pregnancy, hemolytic disease of fetus led to the intrauterine death of the fetus. The second child died one day after birth. The third and fourth fetuses required several intrauterine exchange transfusions due to high titers and great hemolytic activity of anti-D antibodies. In both newborns, exchange transfusions had to be performed after birth, and both received additional transfusions of concentrated erythrocytes because of anemia.
Conclusions. HDFN is a severe disorder that can be successfully prevented with appropriate legalized measures.
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