Cases of leukaemia in pregnancy in Slovenia during the period from 2006 to 2016

How they were treated and literature review

  • Mihela Šajn Department of Hematology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana
  • Samo Zver Department of Hematology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana
  • Miha Lučovnik Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana
Keywords: pregnancy, acute myeloid leukemia, acute promyelocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, daunorubicine, leukapheresis

Abstract

Incidenca levkemij, odkritih v nosečnosti, znaša od 1/10.000 do 1/100.000. Nemalokrat je ob odkritju bolezni z zdravljenjem s citostatiki potrebno začeti takoj. Citostatiki so za plod teratogeni, zato moramo pred pričetkom zdravljenja pretehtati vse možnosti in izbrati najbolj sprejemljivo. Predstavljamo primera akutne mieloične levkemije (AML) in kronične mieloične levkemije (KML), odkrita v nosečnosti, ki smo ju obravnavali v Univerzitetnem kliničnem centru v Ljubljani. Gre za edina primera v zadnjih desetih letih v Sloveniji.
Bolnico z AML, podvrsta akutna promielocitna levkemija (APL), smo ob začetku 2. trimesečja nosečnosti zdravili z daunorubicinom in all-transretinoično kislino (ATRA). Glede na našo izkušnjo se zdi, da so priporočila za zdravljenje APL v nosečnosti realna, izvedljiva in predvsem varna za bolnico in plod.
Pri bolnici s KML, ki je prvič prišla k nam tik pred porodom, je bila v ospredju izrazita levkocitoza 335 × 109/L, trombocitoza in splenomegalija. Zavračala je vse načine zdravljenja, v prvi vrsti levkoferezo. Kljub vsemu je brez porodnih zapletov rodila zdravega otroka. Porod je bil zaradi povečane vranice in posledične nevarnosti za njeno rupturo dokončan s carskim rezom. Na osnovi naše izkušnje lahko zaključimo, da ni moč priporočiti, pri kako velikem številu levkocitov je za mati in plod koristno začeti zdraviti z levkoferezo. Enako tudi ni jasno, kakšno tveganje za rupturo vranice v teh primerih predstavlja poskus vaginalnega poroda. Uganka ostaja tudi vprašanje, kolikokrat se zaradi levkemij različnih oblik poveča tveganje za trombembolični dogodek v nosečnosti, ki že sama po sebi nagiba k trobozam.

 

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Published
2018-10-28
How to Cite
1.
Šajn M, Zver S, Lučovnik M. Cases of leukaemia in pregnancy in Slovenia during the period from 2006 to 2016. ZdravVestn [Internet]. 28Oct.2018 [cited 17Jan.2019];87(9-10):429-38. Available from: https://vestnik.szd.si/index.php/ZdravVest/article/view/2655
Section
Case report, short scientific article