a novelty in the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are the newest group of drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2, which have been in clinical use for the last few years. They act in the proximal renal tubules by reducing the glucose reabsorption, the glucose then being excreted in the urine. Consequently, by decreasing blood glucose levels, they have a favourable effect on the glycaemia control and importantly do not increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors also possess favourable metabolic effects, especially on weight reduction, blood pressure reduction and serum uric acid level reduction. They also slow down the progression of the diabetic kidney disease. For some SGLT-2 inhibitors it was also shown that they exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by reducing cardiovascular events and complications through yet unknown mechanisms, which are subject of intensive study. SGLT-2 inhibitors rarely cause serious side effects. The present manuscript describes the mechanism of action of SGLT-2 inhibitors, their effect on the glycaemia control, metabolic effects, effects on the incidence of cardiovascular disease, the most common side effects and prescribing restrictions for SGLT-2 inhibitors in Slovenia.
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